Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is a rare congenital vascular disorder in which a limb may be affected by port wine stains (red-purple birthmarks involving blood vessels), varicose veins, and/or too much bone and soft-tissue growth. The limb may be larger, longer, and/or warmer than normal. The cause is unknown.
Symptoms can include bleeding from the affected limb, a skin infection, blood in the urine, or rectal/vaginal bleeding. You could experience pain in the limb, blood clots, anaemia and seizures.
Surgery may be necessary for KTS to reduce the threat of serious complications. Surgical treatments are performed in the hospital setting by a vascular surgeon.
Ligation and Stripping
Ligation means the surgical tying of veins through a small incision in the skin to prevent the pooling of blood. Ligation may be used in conjunction with vein stripping, or removal of the vein. In many instances, the vein is removed using a minimally invasive surgical procedure called venous ablation.
Sclerotherapy may be recommended. Sclerotherapy involves the injection of a solution directly into the varicose veins that cause them to collapse and disappear. Several sclerotherapy treatments usually are required to achieve the desired results. Foam sclerotherapy is a variation of the procedure performed under ultrasound guidance that involves the injection of a foaming agent mixed with a sclerosing agent. Sclerotherapy can eliminate the pain and discomfort of varicose veins and helps prevent complications such as venous haemorrhage and ulceration.
Endovenous Thermal Ablation
Endovenous thermal ablation is a newer procedure. In this, laser or high-frequency radio waves are used to create intense local heat in the varicose vein. The technology is different with each type of energy source, but both forms of local heat close up the targeted vessel. This treatment closes off the problem veins but leaves them in place so there is minimal bleeding and bruising. Compared with ligation and stripping, endovenous thermal ablation results in less pain and a faster return to normal activities, with similar cosmetic results.